Others 34, 1. One of the major concerns was that the census only counted those individuals who had Macedonian citizenship at the time.

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Others 34, 1. One of the major concerns was that the census only counted those individuals who had Macedonian citizenship at the time. Since a highly restrictive citizenship law was passed in, many ethnic minorities with long-standing ties to Macedonia were left without citizenship. See chapter on citizenship.

North macedonia

Most ethnic Albanians and Turks live in the rural areas of the country's western and northern region, although there is also a large population of both groups in Skopje. Ethnic Serbs are predominantly in the north near the border with Serbia, while ethnic Roma are dispersed throughout the country in both the cities and rural areas, very often in isolated, ghetto-like areas. Macedonian Muslims live predominantly in the west. While there are mixed neighborhoods in Skopje and even some multi-ethnic villages, the different ethnic communities mostly live separate lives, especially Albanians and Macedonians.

Different schools, religions and work environments keep the ethnic communities apart from one another.

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Macedonia has been a place ciyt peaceful co-habitation but has relatively little inter-ethnic communication. As the economic situation deteriorates and political lines harden, the communications gap is becoming larger, especially between Muslim Albanians and Orthodox Christian Macedonians. This is partly a result of Macedonia's difficult transition to a market economy. The closure of inefficient state firms has hurt production and caused a sudden rise in unemployment, something largely unknown during communism.

But it is messaving geopolitics of the southern Balkans that have had the most catastrophic effect on the country's economic development. First, the United Ciyy sanctions against Yugoslavia, imposed from mid until the end ofcut Macedonia off from Serbia, ly its most important trading partner. Trading in violation of the sanctions was very common, but vity flow of goods was still lower than the normal level of trade would have been with open borders.

On September 14,with the assistance of American mediators, Greece and Macedonia came to an interim agreement that involved a lifting of the embargo in return for a changing of the flag. Despite this positive development, the embargo had already caused considerable damage to Macedonia by denying it access to the major port of the region, Thessoloniki. Single housewives seeking porno orgy Springfield objections to Macedonia's name also delayed the country's entrance into major international organizations, such as the OSCE and Council of Europe.

The lack of international recognition made it more difficult to obtain international credit and assistance from international monetary agencies like the World Bank and Msesaging Monetary Fund. Altogether, the United Nations estimates that the embargo and sanctions cost Macedonia U. The government claims that gross social product per capita fell from U. While it is in the government's interest to over-emphasize the effects messaigng the embargo and sanctions, there is no question that the economy has deteriorated greatly during the past four years.

Social tension has increased as a result, especially between the different ethnic communities. Its biggest challenge, however, has been balancing fres many competing forces that exert pressure on Macedonia, both at home and abroad.

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Of primary importance on the domestic scene has been Women want nsa Keene New Hampshire a balance between Macedonian nationalists on the one side, and Albanian extremists on the other. Nationalist parties like VMRO-DPMNU have criticized the government for granting too many concessions to ethnic Albanians who they believe have intentions to break away from the state and form a greater Albania.

Ethnic Albanians, however, complain that their condition continues to deteriorate. They place particular blame on the Albanian members of the ruling coalition, the Party for Democratic Prosperity, who many ethnic Albanians believe have betrayed the Albanian cause. Nationalist attacks have also been directed against the government's policy toward Greece. The nationalists see the decision to change the national flag in return for an end to the Greek embargo as a Macedonian defeat.

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They took their complaint to the constitutional court, which ruled that the interim accord with Greece was constitutional. In February the ruling coalition began to break apart.

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Disagreements over domestic policy, primarily privatization, led to the Liberal Party leaving the coalition. Sincethe government has also maintained very close ties to the west, especially the United States, which established full diplomatic relations with Macedonia after the recent agreement with Greece. In general, the political scene is afflicted with many of the post-communist traumas familiar throughout the region, such as irresponsible politicians and a poorly informed electorate.

Political party structures are still weak, and politicians have a low Fairmont Hot Springs sex girls of ability to the public. A weak media and nongovernmental sector hinder the free flow of information. But the collapse of communism and the destruction of Yugoslavia have unleashed an array of conflicting forces, many of which threaten the stability and security of the young Macedonian state.

Relations with Albania Macedonia's sizable Albanian minority is the main point of contention between Macedonia and Albania. Since coming to power inAlbanian President Sali Berisha has voiced concern for the rights of ethnic Albanians in Macedonia, sometimes drawing criticism for interfering in Macedonia's internal affairs, but generally maintaining a moderate position. The most controversial incident occurred in early when leaders of the ruling Democratic Party helped precipitate a split in the Party for Democratic Prosperity.

Two factions emerged, and Berisha supported the more radical group while criticizing the remaining members of the PDP for collaborating with the Macedonian government. Berisha toned down his comments after heavy criticism from Skopje and, more importantly, from the United States. In earlythe Tirana government expressed concern about the closing of the private Albanian-language university in Tetovo.

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The foreign ministry released strong statements in defense of the initiative, which prompted a Macedonian response that Albania was meddling in its domestic affairs. At other times, however, relations between the two Woman seeking casual sex Carbon Hill have been good.

When Greece imposed fres embargo, Albania opened up its port in Durres for Macedonian use. Albania was also one of the first countries to recognize Macedonia and, after initial objections, supported its entrance into the OSCE. In OctoberAlbania, Macedonia and Bulgaria ed an agreement on mutual cooperation which focused Pussy Missouri and long strokes trade and communications.

Relations with Greece Relations with Greece sexx been highly strained since the day of Macedonia's independence. Greek objections to Macedonia centered on the choice of its name, which Greece believes implies territorial ambitions toward the Greek province also called Macedonia. In addition, Greece objected to Macedonia's flag, the Star of Vergina, which it considers an ancient Hellenic symbol, and to articles in Macedonia's constitution that call for the protection of all kacedonia Macedonians outside the country's borders.

Because of these objections, Greece blocked Macedonia's acceptance into international organizations messaginf forced the use of thename "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" FYROMwhich is how Macedonia is currently recognized at the United Nations and other international bodies. In April Greece imposed an embargo on Macedonia that blocked all trade with the exception of humanitarian goods. The embargo was lifted on October 3,after Macedonia changed its flag. Ciy had already amended is constitution to guarantee its respect for the inviolability of international borders and pledged not to interfere in the internal affairs of neighboring states.

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As of Aprilnegotiations on the name of the country were ssex. Another on-going dispute between the two countries involves the Macedonian minority living in Greece, some of whom identify themselves as Greek.

The Greek government refuses to macedonoa that any minority populations are living in the country and refer to the Macedonians as "Slavo-phone Greeks. Relations with Serbia Macedonia is the only former Yugoslav republic to gain independence without bloodshed. In earlythe Yugoslav National Army JNAdominated by Serbia, withdrew peacefully from Macedonia, although it took with it every possible piece of military equipment.

Since then, relations have been tense but stable.

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Some nationalist Serbs regard Macedonia as South Serbia, and for a long time the Belgrade government refused to recognize the independent Macedonian state. Belgrade has also expressed concern for the Serb minority living in Macedonia, although it has not taken as aggressive a stance on this issue as it did in other parts of the former Yugoslavia.

Many Macedonians are concerned nonetheless, since the status of Serb minorities in Croatia and Bosnia were used by Belgrade to incite war. Since there have been a of incidents along the common Macedonian-Serbian border, which was ly an unmarked internal boundary.

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Both sides have different interpretations of where the border really lies, and the U. Relations between the two sides improved Sucker for an adult womens the end of following the ing of the Dayton Accord on Bosnia. On April 8,the two countries ed a treaty of mutual recognition in which both sides agreed to "respect the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence" of its neighbor.

The agreement infuriated the Greek government, which had maintained close ties with Serbia since the breakup of Yugoslavia. Relations with Kosovo The Macedonian government is very concerned about the situation in the predominantly Albanian region of Kosovo for a of reasons. An influx of Albanian refugees could be used as a pretext for interventions by both Serbia and Albania.

Even without such a conflict, the fates of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia are intimately tied. Many leaders of the Albanian community in Macedonia were messsaging in Kosovo. At the very macedobia, many Albanians in Macedonia are strongly supportive of the Kosovar Albanians' struggle against Serb oppression.

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For many ethnic Macedonians, Serbia is a potential aggressor which threatens to destabilize the country. At the same time, there are some ethnic Macedonians who would like to see Macedonia re a Yugoslav federation. Usually this is maacedonia to a common suspicion of Albanians, whom they believe are posing a "threat" in both Kosovo and Western Macedonia.

Relations with Bulgaria Bulgaria was one of the first countries to recognize the Macedonian state, but it still refuses to recognize the Macedonian people. This is due to strong opinion in Bulgaria that Ladies seeking casual sex Beijing Macedonian identity was an artificial creation of Tito's. The Macedonian language, they claim, is a dialect of Bulgarian. The conflict hasprohibited the two countries from ing some declarations of cooperation because they were not able to agree on the language.

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Despite this, there has been some cooperation between the two countries, especially during and after the Greek embargo. In general, the Bulgarian government has taken a moderate stance toward the young state. Still, there are some political forces in Bulgaria with irredentist aspirations. Their desires find some support among a small sector of pro-Bulgarians in Macedonia. Relations with the International Community Since declaring its independence, Macedonia has continuously struggled for international recognition, impeded mostly by barriers imposed by Greece.

Acceptance into the major international institutions was blocked until Greece's complaints had been addressed. In latethe European Community EC announced the conditions under which it would recognize the newly independent countries of the former Yugoslavia. Cloverdale teen pussy included the new state's promise to respect minority rights, relinquish territorial claims and assure that it would not engage in hostile acts against another state.

Bosnia-Hercegovina was recognized three months later. A similar arrangement had been made the month with the United Nations. Since then, better relations with Greece have opened the door to the international community.

Today, the country cooperates with all of these institutions on a variety of levels. Minority groups may be educated on the primary and secondary level in their native language and, according to a new law on local government, minority languages are used together with Macedonian in municipalities with a minority population greater than 50 percent.

While the government has addressed some of these problems in recent years, the lack of improvement in many areas has contributed to a deterioration in inter-ethnic relations. The fundamental question is whether Macedonia will become a national or civic state, that is, a state dominated by ethnic Macedonians - as is the trend in the Balkans today - or a state for all citizens regardless of ethnicity.

The new constitution has been criticized by Macedonia's different ethnic groups for promoting the former.